Glaucoma

It is potentially blinding condition.
Many patients with glaucoma may be symptomless while other experiences sudden pain and redness.
Glaucoma is a disease which exhibits a characteristic optic neuropathy which may result in progressive visual field loss.

Risk Factors:

- Raised intraocular pressure secondary to reduced aqueous outflow through the filtration angle. - Positive family history of glaucoma.
- Systemic disorders like diabetes, diseases for which steroids is a long main stay of treatment.
- Previous eye injury.
- Age people over the age of 40.

Classification of Glaucoma:

-Congenital (by birth or development) and acquired.
-Open angle and angle-closure glaucoma.
-Primary and secondary glaucoma.

Symptoms of Glaucoma:

- Depending on type of glaucoma the symptoms varies.
1) First upon and very important thing is that many times, glaucoma is a symptomless disorders.
2) Glaucoma may be unilateral or bilateral.
3) It causes slowly progressive, painless diminished vision as far as open angle glaucoma is concerned, patient looses peripheral vision, and if untreated there is irreversible severe damage to the visual field, patient sees as he/she is seeing through a tunnel; and further more loose all the vision.
4) Narrow angle glaucoma, or closed angle glaucoma produces sudden pain, Headache, dilated pupil, visual loss, halos around light, congestion, nausea and vomiting, it is called attack of glaucoma. The symptoms resolves after some hours but some part of permanent visual loss takes place.
5) In secondary glaucoma symptoms of eye pain, watering, redness is there as most of secondary glaucoma follows eye surgeries, trauma and symptoms of infection, inflammation is there.
6) Lense Induced Glaucoma: When the cataract matures a lot and still not operated then it looses some proteins called as phacolytic glaucoma and many times it is so hypermature that the pupil gets dilated and raises IOP called phacomorphic glaucoma. Timely cataract surgery is the key.

Important Diagnostic Tests

IOP
Optic Disc Evaluation
Gonioscopy
Corneal thickness




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